An international sourcebook of paper history. Patent 3, continuation of seriesSee the bibliography for a brief listing of publications on the history, manufacture, and design of traditional watermarks.
Afterward, the papers were immersed in a deionized water bath for one-half hour and again allowed to air dry.
An attempt to determine the chemical content of the watermarks in the three samples was made by performing analytical tests. Watermarks tested with both of these bleaches appeared dark on the obverse and fluoresced on the reverse under short-wave ultraviolet illumination.
The crumbs from the erasure procedure were gathered and laid on the watermarked area. Chemical watermarks appear dark and dull because components of the watermark absorb the short-wave ultraviolet radiation rather than fluorescing with these wavelengths of light fig. The indented or embossed nature of the traditional watermark will produce shadows.
Assigned to Customark Corporation, Appleton, Wisconsin. Only the paper formation is noticeable on the film exposed under the chemically watermarked papers.
Personal communication, April The chemical watermarks and some papers seemed to lose intensity and appeared significantly changed when viewed under short-wave ultraviolet illumination. Ken Carlson of the Fox River Paper Company, Appleton, Wisconsin, generously donated the sample papers and courteously answered questions concerning this technology.
Inapproximately 6. Assigned to Customark Corporation, Appleton, Wisconsin. A dark blue filter placed over the light source can enhance this technique.
Personal communication, April The Customark Fox river watermarked paper remains the sole patent holder for chemical watermarking of paper, though it licenses the use of the technology to other mills. A positive destructive test can be achieved through the use of numerous organic solvents.
Revolution in the process of watermarking. The marks in naturally aged samples are beginning to disappear into the surrounding paper structure. Therefore, it is impossible to determine with certainty directly from the patents the components and proportions necessary for the chemical watermarking process.
Three chemically watermarked papers were supplied by the Fox River Paper Company for the purpose of experimentation. The application of acetic acid created lighter white spots; the application of dimethylformamide created dark bluish dots encircled by a very bright fluorescent ring formed by the movement of the optical brightener in the paper.
In making paper by hand, the wire, known as a mold, is dipped into the wet pulp slurry is in a tub known as a vat. Natural aging, cross-linking of the material, or uncontrolled fluctuating environmental conditions in the museum may be the cause of this phenomenon. To determine whether the watermarked materials interact with the paper as the patent states, the papers were examined under magnification.
Although Oshkosh is a major city in the chain, active production of paper products is no longer located there. It is not yet known whether this change in translucency can be reversed, so destructive testing should be considered only as a final testing option.
Personal communication, May 9. Storage and problems requiring conservation attention are often considered en masse.
Washing in neutral aqueous and alkaline solutions seemed to slightly diffuse the chemical watermarks into the paper. The effect of diffusion seems aggravated by the increase in duration of the immersion.
After immersion the chemical watermarks on the side opposite impregnation appeared blurred, dull, and dark under ultraviolet sources. All the chemicals except hydrogen peroxide and sodium thiosulfate eliminated the cream colorant in the JCC paper. The watermarked area of the paper was erased 25 times in a small circular motion characteristic of traditional cleaning methods.
With the Customark chemical watermark process, unmarked paper can be made in advance and stored. Three watermarked areas of each sheet were tested as follows: Short-wave ultraviolet radiation is more damaging to the human eye than the long-wave ultraviolet radiation commonly used by conservators.
Even the laid and chain lines of a paper with a chemical watermark should be carefully examined and tested before any treatment, as it is possible such lines may also be chemically produced Carlson Upon removal, the samples were left to air dry on a polyester screen.
Watermarks … are they practical? The chemical watermarks appeared slightly more matte, opaque, and dark when viewed with the blue light. Assigned to Customark Corporation, Appleton, Wis.APPLETON, Wis.
(AP) — The Atlas Paper Co.
mill was constructed a year before Thomas Edison created the first commercially viable incandescent light bulb. Located along the Fox River just a few.
Fox Watermark - posted in Paper and Pen Paraphernalia: Here's a wonderful old watermark from some Fox River onionskin I just bought. I really swoon over this sort of thing.
BTW, watermarks are really hard to photograph and this one is particularly light on the paper. Inapproximately million sheets (13, reams) of paper were chemically watermarked by the Fox River Paper Company alone (Carlson ).
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